O IDHM

O IDHM é obtido pela média geométrica dos três subíndices das dimensões que compõem o índice: longevidade, educação e renda.

Education Dimension

Access to knowledge

Within the MHDI, this dimension is measured by the educational level of the adult population and the educational flow of the young people.

What composes the MHDI Education dimension?
MHDI Education is composed of indicators pertaining to the educational level of the adult population and educational flow of young people.
What do these indicators measure?
The educational level of the adult population is measured by the percentage of people aged 18 years or older who have completed primary education.
The educational flow of young people is measured by the arithmetic mean (1) of the percentage of children aged 5 to 6 years attending school; (2), the percentage of young people aged 11 to 13 years attending the final years of primary school; (3) the percentage of young people aged 15 to 17 years with primary education completed; and (4) the percentage of young people aged 18 to 20 years with secondary education completed.
Why these indicators?
The educational level of the adult population reflects how the education system has functioned in previous periods. It assumes that the Brazilian adult population ought to have completed at the least primary education on their way through the educational system.

The measurement of the educational flow of the young people follows the school-age population in four important moments of their educational life: their entry into the education system, completion of the first cycle of primary education and completion of primary education and secondary education.

This composition sends an important message: children aged 5 years should already be attending school, children aged 12 years ought to attend the final years of primary school, 16-year-olds ought to have completed primary education, and young people aged 19 years ought to have completed secondary education. When calculating the indicators, the extension of these age bands is determined by statistic and sample observations
How were these indicators calculated?
The indicators are derived from the responses to the questionnaire from the Demographic Census sample.
Limitations
The education measurement for young people does not include the entire school-age population or the entirety of those attending school. It only captures certain moments in young people’s lives, as they pass through the educational system.

This measurement also contains statistic and sample observations - also supplemented by the ideal education levels of the age groups: at 12, attending final years of primary education; at 16, having completed primary education; and at 19, having completed secondary education.

On the other hand, the measurement of adult education is limited in terms of assessing people who have completed primary education - excluding those who have entered the education system without completing the grades. In the national historical context, the education measurement takes into consideration primary education as the only upper-limit for adults’ access to knowledge.

Weight of Variables
The educational level of the adult population – weight of 1

The educational flow of the young people – weight of 2

Comparison and Adjustments with the Global HDI
Like the global HDI, MHDI Education consists of two indicators: one providing information on the educational level of the adult population and one on the educational level of the school-age population. Nevertheless, the variables are different. For instance, in the Demographic Census 2010 there is no municipal information on the mean years of schooling for people aged 25 years or older, which is a principal education level measurement for the adult population in the global HDI. Therefore, the variable had to be adjusted by adopting the share of the population aged 18 years and older having completed their primary education.

For assessing the educational level of young people, the global HDI logy from 2010 was applied. The expected years of schooling is a retention measure for children attending school – regardless of the repetition of courses. However, since the current challenge of Brazil’s education system is the quality and flow of students rather than the students’ enrollment, the global HDI methodology does not apply to the Brazilian case. This measure also includes higher education, which does not apply to Brazilian municipalities.

Source of Information
IBGE Demographic Census
Support Indicators in Analyzing the MHDI Education Dimension
In order to arrive at a more detailed and complete snapshot of the municipalities, in terms of education, Atlas Brazil presents a considerable amount of data in addition to the five principal indicators of MHDI Education. This supportive data provides information on different age groups - for instance, on topics such as illiteracy, educational levels (primary, secondary and higher education completed) and school attendance (on a gross and net basis, and also taking the schooling delays into account). Atlas also features a variable called Expected Years of Schooling which is an adaptation of the metric methodology used in the global HDI – but, in this case considering 12 years as maximum years of formal study and adjusting these values for repetition. In other words, it considers only the adequacy of school attendance until the age of 18. In the case of an ideal educational flow of the young people, in which all people attend primary school for 6 years without repetition or abandonment, this indicator assumes the value of 12 years.
How is the MHDI Education dimension calculated
Considering that attendance and completion rates vary between 0% and 100% and that the minimum and maximum values chosen are also between 0% and 100%. To “convert” them into an index varying from 0 to 1, one only needs to divide it by 100.

“Thus, if in a municipality:
- 65% of the adult population (18 or older) has completed primary education
- 85% of the children aged 5-6 attend school
- 80% of children aged 11-13 attend the final years of primary school
- 70% of young people aged 15-17 have completed primary education
- 50% of young people aged 18-20 have completed secondary education

The educational level of the adult population would be 0,650

The educational flow of the young people would be the average of the sub-indices referring to the 4 indicators, with the same weight = (0.850 +0.800 +0.700 +0.500) / 4 = 0.712

The MHDI Education of a municipality is the geometric mean of these two indices, the educational level having a weight of 1 and the educational flow having a weight of 2 = 0,691.